Page from a Manuscript of the Qu'ran, approx. 1330–1340. Central Asia or Turkey. Ink, colors, and gold on paper

New Technology 

Islam's influence on growth and gaining knowledge had a deep impact on the civilizations that they had conquered but it can be said that this was because of Muslims of that time where themselves fascinated with these civilizations own cultural achievements — it's as though it were a wheel of constant knowledge that was giving and taking which allowed Muslims to bring about new technology, such as the adaptation of paper from the East and introducing to the Western world. Paper, along with the new and easier writing system had allowed them to store information to such an extent that it gave people the opportunity to make a living just by writing and selling books. Because paper was easier to create compared to parchment and could absorb ink, it means that it would be a lot more difficult to erase information while making it the perfect solution for storing records, making paper an excellent commodity.

Due to its efficiency, paper began to spread from China all the way to Muslim controlled regions in Spain in the 10th century. Islamic paper makers also came up with the idea of creating handy-copying manuscripts in order to produce editions that were larger than any edition available in Europe for centuries. It was also thanks to these Muslim controlled countries that the rest of the world at the time learned to make paper from linen. 

Islam's Enlightenment

Europe at the time was seeing its population-along with their cultural achievements- kick the bucket due to the decline and inevitable downfall of the Roman Empire, which along with the Church's rejection of science in favor of superstitious ideologies, arguably gave rise to the Dark Ages. While all these unfortunate situations were occurring in Europe, scholars of Islam were experiencing the complete opposite. Because Islam at the time encouraged its believers to seek knowledge and become enlightened, Muslim scholars such as Rhazes built hospitals throughout the Muslim world. Rhazes would later on become a physician throughout his life and write many famous medical works about Kidney stones, smallpox and measles. Avicenna, another physicist was also famous for his admiration and respect for Western philosophers such as Aristotle, where he wrote many commentaries on Aristotle's works and two great encyclopedias entitled "Al Schefa," or "Al Chifa" (i.e. healing) and "Al Nadja" (i.e. deliverance).

Abulcasis was another famous surgeon in the Golden Age who became known for his medical encyclopedia called Al-Tarsif, a 30-volume encyclopedia of medical practice, of which the most important part comprised three books on surgery: on cauterization; on incision, perforation, venesection, and wounds; and on bone-setting.

A page from volume 30 of the book of medicine and surgery Al-Tasrif, as preserved in a manuscript in The Institute of Manuscripts of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences in Baku

Muslim science and medicine in particular, were so much more advanced in comparison to Western Christian counterpart. The 12th century Muslim historian, Usama Ibn Munquidh, recalls a story on the authority of Guillaume de Bures, with whom he travelled from Acres to Tiberias: 

"There was with us in our country,' said Guillaume, "a very doughty knight, who fell ill and was at the point of death. As last resource we applied to a Christian priest of great authority and entrusted the patient to him saying, ‘Come with us to examine such and such a knight.' he agreed and set off with us. Our belief was that he had only to lay hands upon him to cure him. As soon as the priest saw the patient, he said, ‘bring me wax.' We brought him some, and he softened it and made (two plugs) like the joints of a finger, each of which he thrust into one of the patient's nostrils; whereupon he expired. ‘He is dead,' we exclaimed. `Yes,' replied the priest; ‘he was suffering, and I plugged his nostrils so that he might die and be at peace!

There are few speculations that the Golden Age of Islam might have been incredibly tolerant to women. There are reports of various female researchers in Moorish Spain, and philosphers, for example, Averroes of Cordoba were straightforwardly genuine about the imbalances in the middle of men and ladies as sketched out in the Hadith, Quran and helper Sunnah. Appeared differently in relation to today, this kind of talk would have without a doubt got him issued a fatwa nearby Ayaan Hirsi Ali and Rushdie. He kept on sharing his knowledge about Islam's fizzled dealings with women; 

Our society allows no scope for the development of women’s talents. They seem to be destined exclusively to childbirth and the care of children, and this state of servility has destroyed their capacity for larger matters. It is thus that we see no women endowed with moral virtues; they live their lives like vegetables, devoting themselves to their husbands. From this stems the misery that pervades in our cities, for women outnumber men by more than double and cannot procure the necessities of life by their own labors

The trilogy to these articles will focus on the decline due to the role the Mongol Empire played as well as something a bit more complex and darker as just like with the good in life, Islam during this Golden Age also experienced the bad as well with certain times of intolerance and social injustices. Its incredibly difficult for us citizens of the 21st century to use our morals of today to try and understand the fact that morality is a human concept. Morality is driven by what society thinks is the right thing to do, driven by whoever has power and although Muslims at this time were, for a large part, the most progressive religion at the time, especially if you compare to the Islamic dominated countries of today, things were still not quite as black and white as we tend to see them as many factors which involved political adversity has played its part in showing that the Islamic Golden Age wasn't always filled with men preaching about strength through unity.